a timeline

based on an article in The Economist Magazine of November 28, 2015.

10 June 1854: Riemann lectures on non-Euclidian Geometry

A history of Non-Euclidan Gemoetry

Drama of the Discovery


Euclidean and Non-Euclidan Gemoetry

Different Types of Geometry

October 1900: Max Planck announces his radiation formula, the foundation of Quantum Theory

Planck's Quantum Theory

Physics of the Universe


University Nebraska-Lincoln

UC Davis

1905: Einstein Announces Special Relativity


Special Relativity Principles

Clocks and Rods


Adding Velocities



Kinematics and Dynamics

Einstein's Pathway to Relativity

November 1915: Einstein Announces General Relativity (accommodates Mercury perturbation)

General Relativity


Relativity as Graphic Novel


General Relativity

Einstein Archives

Physics of the Universe

1917: Einstein hypohthesizes cosmological constant.


Increasing Relevance


University of Chicago

1919: Eddington observes gravitational lensing

Trip to Principe

A Briefing



Testing Relativity

1929: Hubble discovers universe expanding

At Mount Wilson

The Data


Greatest Blunder

No Blunder After All

Aug 2, 1939: Einstein writes letter to FDR suggesting atomic bomb

The Letter


The Necessity

1939: Black Hole Dispute


The Problem



Some History

In Summary

1963: Relativity and Quasars

Meet Roy Kerr

Roy Kerr and Black Holes


1963 Conference

Kerr Metric

1964: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation


CMBR and the Big Bang


More about the Big Bang

A Popular Concept

1975: Hawking Radiation

Hawking Radiation

And String Theory


As Seen on TV

University of Colorado

1960s-Now: Penrose's Twistor Theory 

Twistor Theory

A Video


An Interview

Origins of an Idea


Back to Einstein and Schrodinger

Back to the Attic